Cochrane Review: Sedatives for Opiate Withdrawal in Newborn Infants
This is a review completed in 2005 that examine the use of different drugs to treat NAS. Studies are reviewed and recommendations are made based on the review. It is clear that the treatment of withdrawal from opioids in infants is best treated with an opioid.

Cochrane Review: Opiate Treatment for Opiate Withdrawal in Newborn Infants
This is a review of 7 studies (585 babies) that evaluated the use of various treatments of neonatal abstinence that included treatment with an opioid.  These studies are reviewed and a summary of the findings are presented.  The summary suggests that using an opiate compared to a barbiturate (Phenobarbital) may reduce the incidence of seizures, duration of treatment and nursery admission rate. Opiates such as morphine or dilute tincture of opium should probably be used as initial treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

Child Health Network
This resource discusses the screening, monitoring and pharmacologic management of neonatal abstinence.

March of Dimes: Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy

This resource discusses questions such as:  What are the risks with the use of marijuana during pregnancy?, What is the long-term outcome for babies exposed to heroin before birth?, What is the risk of cocaine use during pregnancy? Other questions are also addressed. It is a good resource.

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